TOPIC: HIV/AIDS, SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES and SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
- See Massachusetts HIV/AIDS Data Fact Sheet.
- See New York City Sex in the City report.
- Pathela P, Hajat A, Schillinger J, Blank S, Sell R, Mostashari F.Discordance between sexual behavior and self-reported sexual identity: a population-based survey of New York City men. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Sep 19;145(6):416-25. BACKGROUND: Persons reporting sexual identity that is discordant with their sexual behavior may engage in riskier sexual behaviors than those with concordant identity and behavior. The former group could play an important role in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. OBJECTIVE: To describe discordance between self-described sexual identity and behavior among men who have sex with men and associations between identity-behavior and risk behaviors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, random digit-dialed telephone survey of health status and risk behaviors. SETTING: New York City. PARTICIPANTS: Population-based sample of 4193 men. MEASUREMENTS: Concurrent measures of sexual identity and sexual behaviors, including number and sex of sex partners, condom use during last sexual encounter, and recent testing for HIV infection. Sex partner information was ascertained in a separate section from sexual identity; all participants were asked about the number of male sex partners and then were asked about the number of female sex partners in the past year. RESULTS: Of New York City men reporting a sexual identity, 12% reported sex with other men. Men who had sex with men exclusively but self-identified as heterosexual were more likely than their gay-identified counterparts to belong to minority racial or ethnic groups, be foreign-born, have lower education and income levels, and be married. These men were more likely than gay-identified men who have sex with men to report having only 1 sexual partner in the previous year. However, they were less likely to have been tested for HIV infection during that time (adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.6 [95% CI, 0.4 to 0.9]) and less likely to have used condoms during their last sexual encounter (adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.5 [CI, 0.3 to 1.0]). LIMITATIONS: The survey did not sample groups that cannot be reached by using residential telephone services. CONCLUSIONS: Many New York City men who have sex with men do not identify as gay. Medical providers cannot rely on patients' self-reported identities to appropriately assess risk for HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases; they must inquire about behavior. Public health prevention messages should target risky sexual activities rather than a person's sexual identity.
- See 2003 HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report
- See Demographic and Behavioral Data from a SHAS Project 1997-2000
- See Boulder Valley School District Report on the 2003 YRBS
- See Massachusetts HIV/AIDS Data Fact Sheet
- See 2001 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results.
- See 2003 Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey Results.
- Garofalo R, Wolf RC, Kessel S, Palfrey SJ, DuRant RH. The association between health risk behaviors and sexual orientation among a school-based sample of adolescents. Pediatrics. 1998 May;101(5):895-902. OBJECTIVE: This study is one of the first to examine the association between sexual orientation and health risk behaviors among a representative, school-based sample of adolescents. DESIGN: This study was conducted on an anonymous, representative sample of 4159 9th- to 12th-grade students in public high schools from Massachusetts' expanded Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Sexual orientation was determined by the following question: "Which of the following best describes you?" A total of 104 students self-identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual (GLB), representing 2.5% of the overall population. Of GLB youth, 66.7% were male and 70% were white (not Hispanic). Health risk and problem behaviors were analyzed comparing GLB youth and their peers. Those variables found to be significantly associated with GLB youth were then analyzed by multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: GLB youth were more likely than their peers to have been victimized and threatened and to have been engaged in a variety of risk behaviors including suicidal ideation and attempts, multiple substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Four separate logistic regression models were constructed. Model I, Onset of Behaviors Before Age 13, showed use of cocaine before age 13 years as strongly associated with GLB orientation (odds ratio [OR]: 6.10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.45-15.20). Early initiation of sexual intercourse (2.15; 10.6-4.38), marijuana use (1.98; 1.04-4.09), and alcohol use (1.82; 1.03-3.23) also was associated with GLB orientation. Model II, Lifetime Frequencies of Behaviors, showed that frequency of crack cocaine use (1.38; 1.06-1.79), inhalant use (1.30; 1.05-1.61), and number of sexual partners (1.27; 1.06-1.43) was associated with GLB orientation. Model III, Frequency of Recent Behaviors, showed smokeless tobacco use in the past 30 days (1.38; 1. 20-1.59) and number of sexual partners in the previous 3 months (1. 47; 1.31-1.65) were associated with GLB orientation. Model IV, Frequency of Behaviors at School, showed having one's property stolen or deliberately damaged (1.23; 1.08-1.40) and using marijuana (1.29; 1.05-1.59) and smokeless tobacco (1.53; 1.30-1.81) were associated with GLB orientation. Overall, GLB respondents engaged disproportionately in multiple risk behaviors, reporting an increased mean number of risk behaviors (mean = 6.81 +/- 4.49) compared with the overall student population (mean = 3.45 +/- 3.15). CONCLUSION: GLB youth who self-identify during high school report disproportionate risk for a variety of health risk and problem behaviors, including suicide, victimization, sexual risk behaviors, and multiple substance use. In addition, these youth are more likely to report engaging in multiple risk behaviors and initiating risk behaviors at an earlier age than are their peers. These findings suggest that educational efforts, prevention programs, and health services must be designed to address the unique needs of GLB youth.
- Anderson JE, Wilson RW, Barker P, Doll, L, Jones TS, Holtgrave D. Prevalence of Sexual and Drug-Related HIV Risk Behaviors in the U.S. Adult Population: Results of the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 1999;21: 148-156.CONTEXT: Data on the prevalence of HIV risk behavior that are representative of the general population are needed to help evaluate the effectiveness of prevention programs. OBJECTIVE: To use data from a large national interview survey to make estimates of the prevalence of sexual and drug-related HIV risk behaviors in the adult population of the United States. DESIGN: Nationally representative cross-sectional survey with in-person interviews collecting information on drug use and sexual behavior. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 12,381 U.S. adults aged between 18 and 59 who were respondents to the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, as part of sample of the noninstitutionalized population. Interviews took place in respondents homes using face-to-face interviewer-administered and self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: In total, 2.8% of respondents were classified as having increased risk for HIV through sexual behavior; this represents 3.9 million persons. 1.7% reported some degree of risk through drug-related behaviors, representing 1.2 million persons. 3.5% of adults (5 million persons) were found to have some degree of HIV risk from sexual or drug-related behavior. Persons who were at risk through drug behavior were much more likely than others to be at risk through sexual behavior. Condom use was not related to HIV risk, although having a recent HIV test was found to be. Among those who reported some behaviors that placed them at increased risk for HIV infection, only 22% used a condom the last time they had sex with a regular partner. CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of sexual risk behavior on the part of drug users suggests increasing condom use for this group should be a priority goal for programs, especially condom use with main partners. Survey work needs to be continued and improved to make it possible to assess the impact of successful local prevention efforts on national rates of HIV risk behavior.
- Paul JP, Catania J, Pollack L, Stall R. Understanding childhood sexual abuse as a predictor of sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men: The Urban Men's Health Study. Child Abuse Negl. 2001 Apr;25(4):557-84. OBJECTIVE: The prevalence and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among men who have sex with men (MSM), and links with sexual risk are explored. A model linking CSA and sexual risk among MSM is proposed. METHOD: A telephone probability sample of urban MSM (n = 2881) was recruited and interviewed between November 1996 and February 1998. The interview covered numerous health issues, including history of sexual victimization. RESULTS: One-fifth reported CSA, primarily by non-family perpetrators. Initial CSA experiences are characterized by high levels of force (43% involved physical force/weapons), and penetrative sex (78%; 46% reported attempted or actual anal intercourse). Such men are more likely than nevercoerced men to engage in high risk sex (unprotected anal intercourse with a non-primary partner or with a serodiscordant male). In multivariate analyses, the effect of childhood sexual coercion on sexual risk is mediated by substance use, patterns of sexual contacts, and partner violence, but not by adult sexual
revictimization or by depression. CONCLUSIONS: Findings are interpreted within the context of social learning theory and prior research on sexual risk-taking. The high risk for CSA among MSM, which can predispose such men to patterns of HIV sexual risk, warrants new approaches in HIV prevention.