- See Oregon 2003 Report.
- Pathela P, Hajat A, Schillinger J, Blank S, Sell R, Mostashari F.Discordance between sexual behavior and self-reported sexual identity: a population-based survey of New York City men. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Sep 19;145(6):416-25. BACKGROUND: Persons reporting sexual identity that is discordant with their sexual behavior may engage in riskier sexual behaviors than those with concordant identity and behavior. The former group could play an important role in the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. OBJECTIVE: To describe discordance between self-described sexual identity and behavior among men who have sex with men and associations between identity-behavior and risk behaviors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, random digit-dialed telephone survey of health status and risk behaviors. SETTING: New York City. PARTICIPANTS: Population-based sample of 4193 men. MEASUREMENTS: Concurrent measures of sexual identity and sexual behaviors, including number and sex of sex partners, condom use during last sexual encounter, and recent testing for HIV infection. Sex partner information was ascertained in a separate section from sexual identity; all participants were asked about the number of male sex partners and then were asked about the number of female sex partners in the past year. RESULTS: Of New York City men reporting a sexual identity, 12% reported sex with other men. Men who had sex with men exclusively but self-identified as heterosexual were more likely than their gay-identified counterparts to belong to minority racial or ethnic groups, be foreign-born, have lower education and income levels, and be married. These men were more likely than gay-identified men who have sex with men to report having only 1 sexual partner in the previous year. However, they were less likely to have been tested for HIV infection during that time (adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.6 [95% CI, 0.4 to 0.9]) and less likely to have used condoms during their last sexual encounter (adjusted prevalence ratio, 0.5 [CI, 0.3 to 1.0]). LIMITATIONS: The survey did not sample groups that cannot be reached by using residential telephone services. CONCLUSIONS: Many New York City men who have sex with men do not identify as gay. Medical providers cannot rely on patients' self-reported identities to appropriately assess risk for HIV infection and sexually transmitted diseases; they must inquire about behavior. Public health prevention messages should target risky sexual activities rather than a person's sexual identity.
- Edward O. Laumann, John H. Gagnon, Robert T. Michael, and Stuart Michaels. The Social organization of sexuality in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994. Laumann et al. found that 8.6% of women and 10.1% of men reported any adult same-gender sexuality. Of the women reporting some same-gender sexuality, 88% reported same-gender sexual desire, 41% reported some same-gender sexual behavior, and 16% reported a lesbian or gay identity. Of the men, reporting some same-gender sexuality, 75% reported same-gender sexual desire, 52% reported some same-gender sexual behavior, and 27% reported a gay identity.
- See A Report on the Experiences of Lesbians, Gays and Bisexuals in America and the Public's Views on Issues and Policies Related to Sexual Orientation. Kaiser Family Foundation Report #3193.
- Remafedi G, Resnick M, Blum R, Harris L. Demography of sexual orientation in adolescents. Pediatrics. 1992 Apr;89(4 Pt 2):714-21. This study was undertaken to explore patterns of sexual orientation in a representative sample of Minnesota junior and senior high school students. The sample included 34,706 students (grades 7 through 12) from diverse ethnic, geographic, and socioeconomic strata. Five items pertaining to sexual attraction, fantasy, behavior, and affiliation were embedded in a self-administered survey of adolescent health. Overall, 10.7% of students were "unsure" of their sexual orientation; 88.2% described themselves as predominantly heterosexual; and 1.1% described themselves as bisexual or predominantly homosexual. The reported prevalence of homosexual attractions (4.5%) exceeded homosexual fantasies (2.6%), sexual behavior (1%), or affiliation (0.4%). Gender differences were minor; but responses to individual sexual orientation items varied with age, religiosity, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Uncertainty about sexual orientation diminished in successively older age groups, with corresponding increases in heterosexual and homosexual affiliation. The findings suggest an unfolding of sexual identity during adolescence, influenced by sexual experience and demographic factors.
- Saewyc EM. Skay CL. Bearinger LH. Blum RW. Resnick MD. Demographics of sexual orientation among American-Indian adolescents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 68(4):590-600, 1998 Oct. Self-report of sexual orientation and sexual behavior was compared for 12,978 reservation-based American-Indian and 11,356 rural Anglo-American adolescents. Findings included a significantly higher prevalence of homosexual, bisexual, and unsure responses among American Indians. However, a larger nonresponse rate for American-Indian adolescents raises questions about the cultural relevance of the survey method, and underscores the need for development of more culturally sensitive research tools and methods.
- Sell RL, Wells JA, Wypij D. The Prevalence of Homosexual Behavior and Attraction in the United States, the United Kingdom and France: Results of National Population-Based Samples. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 1995;24(3):235-248. Researchers determining the prevalence of homosexuality in nationally representative samples have focused upon determining the prevalence of homosexual behavior, ignoring those individuals whose sexual attraction to the same sex had not resulted in sexual behavior. We examine the use of sexual attraction as well as sexual behavior to estimate the prevalence of homosexuality in the United States, the United Kingdom, and France using the Project HOPE International Survey of AIDS-Risk Behaviors. We find that 8.7, 7.9, and 8.5% of males and 11.1, 8.6, and 11.7% of females in the United States, the United Kingdom, and France, respectively, report some homosexual attraction but no homosexual behavior since age 15. Further, considering homosexual behavior and homosexual attraction as different but overlapping dimensions of homosexuality, we find 20.8, 16.3, and 18.5% of males, and 17.8, 18.6, and 18.5% of females in the United States, the United Kingdom, and France report either homosexual behavior or homosexual attraction since age 15. Examination of homosexual behavior separately finds that 6.2, 4.5, and 10.7% of males and 3.6, 2.1, and 3.3% of females in the United States, the United Kingdom, and France, respectively, report having had sexual contact with someone of the same sex in the previous 5 years. Our findings highlight the importance of using more than just homosexual behavior to examine the prevalence of homosexuality.
- See Gay and Lesbian Families in the United States: Same-Sex Unmarried Partner Household, Smith D and Gates G.
- See Same-Sex Couples and Their Children in Massachusetts: A View from the 2000 Census, Ash et al.
- See Gay Men and Lesbians in the Military: Estimates from the Census 2000, Gates G.
- The Gay & Lesbian Atlas, Gates G and Ost J, Urban Institute Press, 2004.